Cadbury

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Cadbury, a British confectionery company, the industry’s second-largest globally after the combined Mars-Wrigley. Headquartered in Cadbury House in the Uxbridge Business Park in Uxbridge, London Borough of Hillingdon, England.

The firm was known as “Cadbury Schweppes plc” from 1969 until a May 2008 demerger, which saw the separation of its global confectionery business from its U.S. beverage unit, which has been renamed Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc.

History of Cadbury

In 1824, John Cadbury began vending tea, coffee, and drinking chocolate, which he produced himself, at Bull Street in Birmingham, England. John Cadbury later moved into the production of a variety of Cocoas and Drinking Chocolates being manufactured from a factory in Bridge Street, supplying mainly to the wealthy due to the high cost of manufacture at this time. During this time a partnership was struck between John Cadbury and his brother Benjamin. At this time the company was known as ‘Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham’.

The two brothers opened an office in London and in 1854 received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. Around this time in the 1850s the industry received a much needed boost with the reduction in high import taxes on cocoa, this allowed chocolate to become more affordable to everyone.

Due to the popularity of a new expanded product line, including the very popular Cadbury’s Cocoa Essence, the company’s success led to the decision in 1873 to cease the trading of tea. Around this time, master confectioner Frederic Kinchelman was appointed to share his recipe and production secrets with Cadbury, which led to an assortment of various chocolate covered items.

Having taken over the business in 1861, John Cadbury’s sons Richard and George decided in 1878 that they needed to find new premises. Requiring better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from London, Southampton and Liverpool docks, Cadbury’s started looking for a new greenfield site. Noticing the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway south along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, in 1878 they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located right next to the new Stirchley Road railway station, itself directly opposite the canal, they renamed the Bournbrook estate to Bournville and opened the Bournville factory in 1879.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would ‘alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions’. By 1900 the estate included 313 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate, in fact, it was their Quaker beliefs that first led them to sell tea, coffee and cocoa as alternatives to alcohol.

In 1905, Cadbury’s launched its Dairy Milk bar, with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars, and it becomes the company’s best selling product by 1913. Fruit and Nut was introduced as part of the Dairy Milk line in 1928, soon followed by Whole Nut in 1933. By this point, Cadbury’s was the brand leader in the United Kingdom. These were accompanied by several other products, Flake (1920), Cream-filled eggs (1923), Crunchie (1929) and Roses (1938). Cadbury’s Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2,000 of Cadbury’s male employees joined the Armed Forces and to support the war effort, Cadbury provided clothing, books and chocolate to soldiers. After the war, the Bournville factory was redeveloped and mass production began in earnest.
In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart, Tasmania and in 1919 undertook a merger with J. S. Fry & Sons, another chocolate manufacturer which saw the integration of well-known brands such as Fry’s Chocolate Cream and Fry’s Turkish Delight. During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football fields in which to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food it was placed under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in 1949, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently built new factories and had an increasing demand for their products.

Cadbury was acquired by Kraft Foods in February 2010.

Official website :
www.cadbury.co.uk

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